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AP Biology Chapters 8, 9 Practice Test



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Which of the following is a statement of the first law of thermodynamics?
a.
Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
b.
The entropy of the universe is decreasing.
c.
The entropy of the universe is constant.
d.
Kinetic energy is stored energy that results from the specific arrangement of matter.
e.
Energy cannot be transferred or transformed.
 

 2. 

For living organisms, which of the following is an important consequence of the first law of thermodynamics?
a.
The energy content of an organism is constant.
b.
The organism ultimately must obtain all of the necessary energy for life from its environment.
c.
The entropy of an organism decreases with time as the organism grows in complexity.
d.
Organisms are unable to transform energy.
e.
Life does not obey the first law of thermodynamics.
 

 3. 

Which of the following types of reactions would decrease the entropy within a cell?
a.
dehydration reactions
b.
hydrolysis
c.
respiration
d.
digestion
e.
catabolism
 

 4. 

Which of the following is true for all exergonic reactions?
a.
The products have more total energy than the reactants.
b.
The reaction proceeds with a net release of free energy.
c.
Some reactants will be converted to products.
d.
A net input of energy from the surroundings is required for the reactions to proceed.
e.
The reactions are nonspontaneous.
 

 5. 

What term is used to describe the transfer of free energy from catabolic pathways to anabolic pathways?
a.
feedback regulation
b.
bioenergetics
c.
energy coupling
d.
entropy
e.
cooperativity
 

 6. 

How can one increase the rate of a chemical reaction?
a.
Increase the activation energy needed.
b.
Cool the reactants.
c.
Decrease the concentration of the reactants.
d.
Add a catalyst.
e.
Increase the entropy of the reactants.
 

 7. 

The molecule that functions as the reducing agent (electron donor) in a redox or oxidation-reduction reaction
a.
gains electrons and gains energy.
b.
loses electrons and loses energy.
c.
gains electrons and loses energy.
d.
loses electrons and gains energy.
e.
neither gains nor loses electrons, but gains or loses energy.
 

 8. 

Why does the oxidation of organic compounds by molecular oxygen to produce mc008-1.jpg and water release free energy?
a.
The covalent bonds in organic molecules are higher energy bonds than those in water and carbon dioxide.
b.
Electrons are being moved from atoms that have a lower affinity for electrons (such as C) to atoms with a higher affinity for electrons (such as O).
c.
The oxidation of organic compounds can be used to make ATP.
d.
The electrons have a higher potential energy when associated with water and mc008-2.jpg than they do in organic compounds.
e.
The covalent bond in mc008-3.jpg is unstable and easily broken by electrons from organic molecules.
 

 9. 

Which of the following statements describes NADmc009-1.jpg?
a.
NADmc009-2.jpg is reduced to NADH during both glycolysis and the citric acid cycle.
b.
NADmc009-3.jpg has more chemical energy than NADH.
c.
NADmc009-4.jpg is reduced by the action of hydrogenases.
d.
NADmc009-5.jpg can donate electrons for use in oxidative phosphorylation.
e.
In the absence of NADmc009-6.jpg, glycolysis can still function.
 

 10. 

Energy released by the electron transport chain is used to pump H+ ions into which location?
a.
cytosol
b.
mitochondrial outer membrane
c.
mitochondrial inner membrane
d.
mitochondrial intermembrane space
e.
mitochondrial matrix
 

 11. 

Each time a molecule of glucose (mc011-1.jpg) is completely oxidized via aerobic respiration, how many oxygen molecules (mc011-2.jpg) are required?
a.
1
b.
2
c.
6
d.
12
e.
38
 

 12. 

Approximately how many molecules of ATP are produced from the complete oxidation of two molecules of glucose (mc012-1.jpg) in cellular respiration?
a.
2
b.
4
c.
15
d.
38
e.
76
 

 13. 

Recall that the complete oxidation of a mole of glucose releases 686 kcal of energy (ÄG = -686 kcal/mol). The phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP stores approximately 7.3 kcal per mole of ATP. What is the approximate efficiency of cellular respiration for a "mutant" organism that produces only 29 moles of ATP for every mole of glucose oxidized, rather than the usual 36-38 moles of ATP?
a.
0.4%
b.
25%
c.
30%
d.
40%
e.
60%
 

 14. 

Which of the following occurs in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell?
a.
glycolysis and fermentation
b.
fermentation and chemiosmosis
c.
oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA
d.
citric acid cycle
e.
oxidative phosphorylation
 



 
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