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Chapter 42 Test



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

An anthropologist discovers fossilized animal remains that give strong evidence that the organism had a large, well-formed, most likely 4-chambered heart, with no connection between the right and left sides. Which of the following could most reasonably be hypothesized from this observation?
a.
that the animal and its relatives had evolved from birds
b.
that the animal had a high energy requirement and was endothermic
c.
that the animal was most closely related to reptiles such as alligators and crocodiles
d.
that the animal was a kind of invertebrate
e.
that the species had little to no need to regulate blood pressure
 

 2. 

Where are semilunar valves to be found in the mammalian heart?
a.
where blood goes from atria to ventricles
b.
on the right side of the heart only
c.
where the pulmonary veins attach to the heart
d.
at the places where blood leaves via the aorta and pulmonary arteries
e.
at the places where the anterior and posterior venae cavae enter
 

 3. 

A species has a normal resting systolic blood pressure of >260 mm Hg. What is the most probable hypothesis?
a.
The animal is small and does not need the blood pumped far.
b.
The animal is obese.
c.
The species has very wide diameter veins.
d.
The animal has a very long distance between heart and brain.
e.
The species is characterized by frequent, quick motions.
 

 4. 

Which of the following features do all gas exchange systems have in common?
a.
The exchange surfaces are moist.
b.
They are enclosed within ribs.
c.
They are maintained at a constant temperature.
d.
They are exposed to air.
e.
They are found only in animals.
 

 5. 

An oil-water mixture is used as a spray against mosquitoes. How might this spray also affect gas exchange in other insects?
a.
The oil might coat their lungs.
b.
The oil might block the openings into the tracheal system.
c.
The oil might interfere with gas exchange across the capillaries.
d.
Only A and B are correct.
e.
A, B, and C are correct.
 

 6. 

Breathing is usually regulated by
a.
erythropoietin levels in the blood.
b.
the concentration of red blood cells.
c.
hemoglobin levels in the blood.
d.
mc006-1.jpg and mc006-2.jpg concentration and pH-level sensors.
e.
the lungs and the larynx.
 

 7. 

At sea level, atmospheric pressure is 760 mm Hg. Oxygen gas is approximately 21% of the total gases in the atmosphere. What is the approximate partial pressure of oxygen?
a.
0.2 mm Hg
b.
20.0 mm Hg
c.
76.0 mm Hg
d.
160.0 mm Hg
e.
508.0 mm Hg
 

 8. 

The average resting stroke volume of the heart is 70 mL and it beats ~72 times per minute. This would result in which cardiac output?
a.
5 L/minute
b.
504 mL/minute
c.
0.5 L/minute
d.
50 L/minute
e.
500 L/minute
 

 9. 

Average blood pressure is lowest in which structure(s)?
a.
the aorta
b.
arteries
c.
arterioles
d.
capillaries
e.
venae cavae
 

 10. 

What is the reason that fluid is forced from the bloodstream to the surrounding tissues at the arteriole end of systemic capillaries?
a.
The osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid is greater than that of the blood.
b.
The hydrostatic pressure of the blood is less than that of the interstitial fluid.
c.
The hydrostatic pressure of the blood is greater than the osmotic pressure of the blood.
d.
The osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid is greater than the hydrostatic pressure of the blood.
e.
The osmotic pressure of the blood is greater than the hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid.
 

 11. 

Which of the following is/are a cause(s) of vasoconstriction?
a.
lying down after standing
b.
standing after lying down
c.
stress or hormone concentration
d.
increased blood pressure
e.
histamine secretion
 

 12. 

Blood returning to the mammalian heart in a pulmonary vein drains first into the
a.
vena cava.
b.
left atrium.
c.
right atrium.
d.
left ventricle
e.
right ventricle
 

 13. 

Pulse is a direct measure of
a.
blood pressure.
b.
stroke volume.
c.
cardiac output.
d.
heart rate.
e.
breathing rate.
 

 14. 

Dialysis patients, who will have blood withdrawn, dialyzed, then replaced, are always weighed when they enter the facility and then weighed carefully again before they leave. What is the most likely explanation for this requirement?
a.
Even small changes in body weight may signify changes in blood volume and therefore blood pressure.
b.
Many people who have dialysis are diabetic and must control their weight carefully.
c.
Dialysis removes blood proteins and these weigh more than other blood components.
d.
Dialysis is likely to cause edema and such swelling must be controlled.
e.
Reclining posture during dialysis can cause a tendency for weight gain.
 
 
Use the following information to answer the next questions.

Atmospheric pressure at sea level is equal to a column of 760 mm Hg.
Oxygen makes up 21% of the atmosphere by volume.
 

 15. 

What is the partial pressure of oxygen mc015-1.jpg?
a.
160 mm Hg
b.
16 mm Hg
c.
120/75
d.
21/760
e.
760/21
 

 16. 

Which of the following occurs with the exhalation of air from human lungs?
a.
The volume of the thoracic cavity decreases.
b.
The residual volume of the lungs decreases.
c.
The diaphragm contracts.
d.
The epiglottis closes.
e.
The rib cage expands.
 



 
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