1. What was one result of
discrimination against American
Indians by white settlers
in the United States in the
late 19th century?

A. American Indians were
displaced from their homelands.

B. American Indians were
forced to maintain their
cultural heritage.

C. American Indians were
prevented from trading with
European settlers.

D. American Indians were persecuted
For killing buffalo on the Great Plains
2. Which advance was largely
responsible for the growth of
suburbs in the United States in the
mid-20th century?

A. the development of color

B. improvements in passenger

C. widespread availability
of automobiles

D. the invention of the personal
3. The term “Latin America” is generally
used to describe a unique cultural
region which includes all of South
America, Central America, and
Mexico. What characteristic helps
define Latin America as a region?
A. Islam is the most widely
practiced religion.

B. Most countries in this region
have command economies.

C. Spanish and Portuguese are the
most widely spoken languages.

D. Most countries in this region are
former colonies of France or
4. In a certain country, decisions
regarding production and
consumption of goods are based
upon customs, beliefs, rituals, and
habits. Over time, the economic
system changes to one in which
production decisions are based on
competition and consumer choice.
How has the economic system of
this country changed?

A. from a mixed economy to a
command economy

B. from a command economy to a
mixed economy

C. from a traditional economy to a
market economy

D. from a market economy to a
traditional economy
5. Although the 14th Amendment to
the Constitution extended the rights
of citizenship to “all persons” born
or naturalized in the United States,
discrimination on the basis of
gender still existed throughout
much of the country during the late
1800s. Which was a consequence
of this discrimination?

A. the end of the military draft for

B. the growth of the women’s
suffrage movement

C. the beginning of sit-ins to
desegregate lunch counters

D. the continuation of efforts to
end university admissions

6. How do absolute monarchs differ
from constitutional monarchs in
their ability to use power?

A. The power of absolute
monarchs is unlimited.

B. The power of absolute
monarchs is maintained
through periodic elections.

C. The power of absolute
monarchs is limited by the
fundamental laws of the

D. The power of absolute
monarchs depends on
continued support from their
7) In a command economy, the
question of what goods to produce
is primarily determined by
A. cultural traditions.
B. decisions by individuals.
C. government plans.
D. corporate policies.
8)Following World War II, France attempted to re-establish control over its
colony, Indochina, which included Vietnam. Leaders of the Vietminh, a
communist-supported independence movement in Vietnam, fought against
France’s efforts to retake the colony. The United States viewed this conflict as
part of the Cold War and aided France.
This U.S. action was based on which policy?
A. a policy of opposing colonialism
B. a policy of helping Japan rebuild its economy
C. a policy of containing the spread of communism
D. a policy of participating in United Nations’ peacekeeping efforts
9) Freedom of assembly is guaranteed by the First Amendment,
 but assemblies may legally be broken up when protesters
A. attempt to disrupt public safety.
B. publicly oppose U.S. foreign policy.
C. express opinions that are controversial.
D. are members of a religious organization.

10. During World War II, Japanese
troops occupied much of China. This
weakened the Chinese government,
and in 1949, communist forces
overthrew the government and
established a communist state. What
effect did the Chinese Communist
Revolution have on the development
of the Cold War?
A. It decreased tensions, because
it led to the formation of the
Warsaw Pact.
B. It increased tensions, because it
strengthened the independence
movement in India.
C. It increased tensions, because it
increased Western fears of
communist expansion.
D. It decreased tensions, because
it led to the collapse of
communism in the Soviet Union.
11.The following is from an article in
the newspaper.
Funding for state parks has been
one of our governor’s top
priorities over the last four years.
When she entered office, state
park funding was at $21 million;
this year, the parks’ budget will be
over $40 million.

Which method enables a citizen to
analyze the reliability of this

A. Visit some state parks.

B. Listen to all of the governor’s

C. Read a recent book written by
the governor.

D. Verify the accuracy of the
information presented.
12. In the late 19th century,
industrialization led to harsh
working conditions in the
United States. Which policies of the
U.S. government allowed such
conditions to develop and later led
to the growth of labor unions to
correct abuses of workers?

A. laissez-faire policies toward big

B. antitrust policies toward

C. imperialist policies regarding
territorial expansion

D. isolationist policies regarding
international alliances
13)The table below shows the main
imports and exports of Country X in
rank order based on value.
What thesis could be supported by
the information in the table?

A. Country X is dependent on
exports of raw materials.

B. The economy of Country X
is centered on manufacturing.

C. Country X is dependent on
imports of finished products.

D. The economy of Country X
is centered on agricultural

Country X
2007 Foreign Trade
Imports                         Exports
1)Rice and Wheat        Automobiles
2)Chemicals                 Computers
3)Iron and Coal          Industrial Equipment
4)Petroleum                  Textiles
14. What was one perspective of
African-Americans that was
reflected in the founding of the
National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People

A. the hope of encouraging
widespread emigration to Africa

B. the belief that racial
segregation was justified in all

C. the goal of forming a new
political party to represent

D. the desire to bring about legal
and social equality for African-
15. In 1923, Adolf Hitler, the future leader of Nazi Germany, declared:
The day must come when a German government shall summon up the courage to
declare to the foreign powers: “The Treaty of Versailles is founded on a monstrous lie.” We fulfill nothing more. Do what you will! If you want battle, look for it!
Source: Adolf Hitler,
Speech of August 1, 1923,

This excerpt would help support
which thesis?

A. Hitler believed the League of Nations would help Germany.

B. Hitler believed Germany was responsible for starting World War I.

C. Hitler used German resentment toward the Treaty of Versailles to gain power.

D. Hitler wanted the World War I Allies to live up to what they promised in the Treaty of Versailles.

 16. The Weimar Republic was established in Germany following World War I. An important factor leading to the collapse of the Weimar Republic and the rise of
Nazi dictatorship that took Germany into World War II was

A. Germany’s resentment of U.S. involvement in European affairs.

B. the rise of independence movements in Germany’s overseas colonies.

C. Germany’s failure to rebuild its armed forces following World War I.

D. the economic burden of war reparations (payments) to Germany’s former enemies.
17) Religious diversity in the United States has increased in the last fifty years. One factor that has contributed to this increase has been an increase in
A. emigration to Africa.
B. immigration from Asia.
C. immigration from Australia.
D. emigration to South America
18)How did the U.S. government’s role in the economy change as a result
of the Great Depression?

A. The federal government had a diminished role in regulating
economic activity.

B. The federal government maintained the role it had in
economic matters before the Great Depression.

C. The federal government expanded its role in regulating
economic activity and promoting economic growth.

D. The federal government transferred its role in economic affairs over to the state
19) What method is typically used by citizens in parliamentary and
presidential democracies to achieve governmental change?
A. elections
B. revolution
C. civil war
D. secession
 20)Which action could the U.S. government employ to protect U.S. automobile manufacturers from foreign competition?
A. increase taxes on the production of U.S. automobiles
B. create free trade agreements with automobile-producing countries
C. increase tariffs and import restrictions on foreign automobiles
D. implement stricter control of competition among U.S. automobile manufacturers

 21) A town’s mayor believes that she can reduce crime by providing some police officers with bicycles.

Which statement would help support this thesis?

A. Sales tax revenues will be used to pay for the bicycles.

B. Bicycle police require several weeks of extra training.

C. Other towns with bicycle police have reduced crime rates.

            D. Bicycle theft is the leading property crime in the town.


22) The League of Nations was created after World War I as a forum for resolving
international conflicts. However, the League was unable to resolve tensions that led to World War II. One factor that contributed to the ineffectiveness of the League was the

A. breakup of colonial empires in Africa and Asia.

B. decision of the United States not to join the League.

C. opposition of League members to the Treaty of Versailles.

D. rise of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union.
23) Identify four factors (social,
political, economic and/or
environmental) that contributed to
the migration of large numbers of
people from Europe to the United
States in the late 19th century.
Write your answer in the Answer
Document. (4 points)
 24) In the United States, reporters’
exercise of freedom of the press may be legally restricted under what circumstances?

A. when reporters disagree with official government policies
B. when reporters are granted interviews with leaders of other countries
C. when reporters discover that elected officials have engaged in illegal activities
D. when reporters have information that could threaten national security if published
25) In a command economy, the
question of what goods to produce
is primarily determined by
A. cultural traditions.
B. decisions by individuals.
C. government plans.
D. corporate policies.

26) What action by the leaders of the French Revolution demonstrates that they were influenced by Enlightenment ideas?

A. They called for the fall of the absolute monarchy.
B. They encouraged the conquests of Napoleon.
C. They fought to maintain France’s colonial empire.
D. They supported the combination of church and state.
27) In recent years, information about foods and food preparation around the world has had a wide audience on U. S. television and on internet websites. People who are eager to try new recipes have created a demand for ingredients not usually produced in the United States. To meet this demand, U.S. supermarkets have been stocking goods formerly unknown to U.S. buyers. What has been the cultural effect of the trend described above?

A. a decrease in religious restrictions on particular foods
B. a reduction in the numbers of people “eating out” in restaurants
C. the inclusion of additional international food choices in the U.S. diet
D. people in foreign countries eating more foods produced in the United States
28) A government was chosen by the majority party in the legislature. The people revolted and established a new government in which the ruler was chosen by religious elders and used power to enforce religious law. How did the system of government change?

A. from a theocracy to an absolute monarchy
B. from a presidential democracy to a dictatorship
C. from a dictatorship to a constitutional monarchy
D. from a parliamentary democracy to a theocracy
29) Which characteristic makes a constitutional monarchy different from an absolute monarchy?

A. an official state religion
B. the presence of a noble class
C. a ruler who inherits power by birth
D. laws which limit the power of the ruler
 30) Enlightenment philosophers such as John Locke and Jean Jacques
Rousseau wrote that the relationship between citizens and their government was a social contract.

Which statement describes the impact of the idea of government
as a social contract on the French Revolution in 1789?

A. The king granted women the right to vote.
B. French citizens claimed their natural rights.
C. The king raised taxes to pay off the public debt.
D. French citizens supported the king against the nobles.

31)The authors of many history books provide bibliographies that indicate the sources for information provided in the text. Why would providing the reader with this information make a book more credible?

 A. It allows the reader to check the reputation of the writer.

B. It allows the reader to find other books on the same topic.
C. It allows the reader to form his or her own opinions on the topic.
D. It allows the reader to determine the thoroughness of the author’s research.

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32)During the Spanish-American War, the U.S. Navy destroyed the Spanish

fleet in Manila Bay in the Philippines. The U.S. Congress later voted for annexation of the Philippines. What was one reason for this act of U.S. imperialism?


A. to provide the U.S. with a valuable naval base in the Pacific
B. to provide the U.S. with a place to relocate its immigrant population
C. to decrease the U.S. need to export raw materials for industrialization
D. to increase the U.S. population by extending citizenship to the Filipinos


33) As a result of the Versailles Treaty, Germany lost its overseas colonies in Africa. How did the loss of these colonies contribute to the outbreak of World War II?


A. Without Germany as a competitor for colonies, Britain and France put little effort intorebuilding their navies.

B. The Nazis exploited German resentment of their colonial losses by engaging in territorial expansion in Europe.

C. Rivalries between Britain and France for territory in Africa prevented these countries from taking action to stop aggression in Europe.

D. The United States ignored Germany’s military build-up because Germany was not

likely to become powerful without raw materials from its former African colonies.


34) What was one idea that the leaders of the American Revolution shared
with Enlightenment thinkers?

A. Colonies exist to provide raw materials and markets for mother countries.

B. The people have the right to overthrow their government if it abuses its powers.
C. Governments may restrict freedom of speech and of the press during times of crisis.
D. Factories and businesses should be owned by the government rather than by individuals.


35)The United States Constitution is a living document that changes over time as a result of amendments and Supreme Court decisions. How did the Constitution change as a result of the 19th Amendment?
A. The voting rights of women were expanded.
B. The civil rights of Native Americans were restricted.
C. The civil rights of African-Americans were protected.
D. The voting rights of property owners were expanded.


36) Which was a common factor in the United States that caused the Red

Scare following World War I and McCarthyism following World War II?

A. racial tension in major cities

B. signs of economic downturn
C. fear of communist expansion
D. the counterculture movement

37) Identify one action that may be taken by the federal government that could improve the ability of businesses to raise wages, buy new equipment, and conduct product research.

A. support monopolies
B. reduce government spending
C. reduce corporate income taxes
D. set price ceilings on goods and services


38) A newspaper prints an article about a bill in the U.S. Senate. What would indicate that the article is biased in favor of the bill?

A. The article quotes the entire text of the bill.

B. The article is printed before the final vote on the bill.
C. The article quotes only senators who support the bill.
D. The article indicates that the president will likely veto the bill.


39)What was a key reason for the creation of the Federal Reserve System?

A. to encourage exports

B. to increase tax revenues
C. to reduce budget deficits
D. to promote economic stability

40) The United States fulfilled one of its imperialist ambitions in the early

20th century by acquiring land to build the Panama Canal. State two
reasons (political and/or economic) why U. S. imperialists wanted to build the canal. Write your answer in the Answer Document. (2 points)

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